A History of the Federal Reserve: 1913-1951 (A History of by Allan H. Meltzer

By Allan H. Meltzer

Author note: ahead by means of Alan Greenspan

Allan H. Meltzer's enormous historical past of the Federal Reserve method tells the tale of 1 of America's so much influential yet least understood public associations. this primary quantity covers the interval from the Federal Reserve's founding in 1913 throughout the Treasury-Federal Reserve Accord of 1951, which marked the start of a bigger and drastically replaced institution.

To comprehend why the Federal Reserve acted because it did at key issues in its background, Meltzer attracts on assembly mins, correspondence, and different inner files (many made public merely in the course of the Nineteen Seventies) to track the reasoning in the back of its coverage judgements. He explains, for example, why the Federal Reserve remained passive all through lots of the monetary decline that resulted in the good melancholy, and the way the Board's activities helped to provide the deep recession of 1937 and 1938. He additionally highlights the influence at the establishment of people corresponding to Benjamin powerful, governor of the Federal Reserve financial institution of recent York within the Twenties, who performed a key position within the adoption of a extra energetic financial coverage through the Federal Reserve. Meltzer additionally examines the impact the Federal Reserve has had on foreign affairs, from makes an attempt to construct a brand new overseas economy within the Nineteen Twenties to the Bretton Woods contract of 1944 that verified the overseas financial Fund and the area financial institution, and the failure of the London monetary convention of 1933.

Written through one of many world's prime economists, this magisterial biography of the Federal Reserve and the folks who assisted in shaping it is going to curiosity economists, important bankers, historians, political scientists, policymakers, and somebody looking a deep knowing of the establishment that controls America's handbag strings.

"It used to be 'an unparalleled orgy of extravagance, a mania for hypothesis, overextended company in approximately all strains and in each portion of the country.' An Alan Greenspan rumination in regards to the irrational exuberance of the overdue Nineteen Nineties? test the 1920 annual record of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve. . . . to appreciate why the Fed acted because it did—at those severe moments and plenty of others—would require years of research, poring over letters, the mins of conferences and inner Fed files. any such job could obviously deter such a lot students of monetary historical past yet now not, thank goodness, Allan Meltzer."—Wall highway Journal

"A seminal paintings that anybody drawn to the interior workings of the U. S. crucial financial institution may still learn. a piece that students will mine for years to come."—John M. Berry, Washington Post

"An quite transparent tale approximately why, because the principles that really proficient coverage advanced, issues occasionally went good and infrequently went badly. . . . you'll be able to in simple terms desire that we don't have to attend too lengthy for the second one installment."—David Laidler, magazine of monetary Literature

"A thorough narrative background of a excessive order. Meltzer's research is persuasive and acute. His paintings will stand for a iteration because the benchmark historical past of the world's strongest financial establishment. it really is a magnificent, even awe-inspiring achievement."—Sir Howard Davies, occasions better schooling Supplement

Alice Hanson Jones Biennial Prize (2004)

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Extra info for A History of the Federal Reserve: 1913-1951 (A History of the Federal Reserve, Volume 1)

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28 chapter two terms and rise or fall more slowly than others. Thornton used money wages as an example of a price that was fixed in nominal amount and argued that, as a result, real profits rise and real wages fall in periods of (unanticipated) inflation. 11 Thornton saw that short-term monetary disturbances had no lasting real effect. Money is neutral in the long run. 12 In contrast to Ricardo, Thornton argued that replacing a convertible currency with inconvertible paper causes the market price of gold to rise above the mint price even if the nominal amount of paper money remains unchanged.

Arguments of this kind became popular in government, but not just in government. This literature neglected to mention either the gains that debtors received or the losses that creditors would experience if inflation resulted. The argument became part of the case against higher interest rates and an end to the wartime pegging policy. PLAN OF THE VOLUME Central banking institutions developed and spread in the nineteenth century. Understanding of the role of money and monetary institutions followed.

With the usury law repealed, the bank experimented with the use of bank rate as a means of controlling base money. 27 A money market had developed, and the principal institutions had accepted distinctive roles. The Bank of England had a set of social objectives, some partial understanding of the steps required to achieve these objectives, and glimmerings of an understanding of the short-run consequences of its actions. Both the market and the bank realized that the bank’s responsibilities went beyond those of an ordinary bank to include the role of lender of 27.

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