By G. Schroth (auth.), Daniel Auclair, Christian Dupraz (eds.)
This quantity includes a range of unique contributions awarded at a workshop held in Montpellier, France, in June 1997. the 2 major targets of the workshop have been, first of all, to assemble what's understood in regards to the techniques underlying agroforestry perform, and, secondly, to supply a discussion board to discover correct types and modelling ways. The workshop used to be additionally capable of play a job in studying the agroforestry platforms encountered in temperate and Mediterranean components, together with either conventional and extra cutting edge agroforestry practices. the most elements mentioned have been: ecological interactions among parts, environmental impression, economics and coverage modelling.
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Agroforestry for Sustainable Land-Use Fundamental Research and Modelling with Emphasis on Temperate and Mediterranean Applications: Selected papers from a workshop held in Montpellier, France, 23–29 June 1997
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Extra info for Agroforestry for Sustainable Land-Use Fundamental Research and Modelling with Emphasis on Temperate and Mediterranean Applications: Selected papers from a workshop held in Montpellier, France, 23–29 June 1997
The need to avoid long term unexpected confounding shifts in agroforestry experiments Simplifying field agroforestry experiments often results in high levels of confounding of treatment variables (Huxley, 1990). But even if these aspects have been carefully managed at the time of setting up the experiment, they may pose a problem later on. Agroforestry experiments are set up for many years, usually many decades in temperate areas, in order to obtain a timeintegrated evaluation over the whole rotation.
In a walnut (luglans nigra x regia)- wheat association experiment, the 4 m wide strips of uncropped land along the tree lines were invaded in summer by red poppies (Papaver Rhoeas), resulting in high water competition with the trees, while in the forestry control treatment the trees were choked in spring with cruciferous species (Sinapis arvensis) that the farmer could not destroy in due time, neither with weedicides nor mechanically. • The possibility to cross-till the forestry control plots and the agroforestry plots depends on the tree density on the plantation line.
Control plots of either pure trees (forestry control plot) or pure crops (agricultural control plot) are therefore essential. Interferences between plots (Ong, 1996) and various edge effects (Langton, 1990; Van Noordwijk and Ong, 1996) have been recognised as sources of error when assessing tree-crop interactions and should always be considered when designing factorial experiments in agroforestry. These aspects will not be discussed here. We will focus 36 on some overlooked aspects of the design and management of control plots in agroforestry experiments: the objective assigned to the control plots, the appropriate structure of the control plots, the need to avoid long term unexpected confounding shifts, the intensity of tree management in forestry control plots.