Animal Research and Ethical Conflict: An Analysis of the by Mary T. Phillips

By Mary T. Phillips

This quantity grew out of a undertaking to behavior a survey of the clinical literature of the U.S. for goods addressing the e. thical and humane problems with animal experimentation. the unique goal of the survey used to be to supply packground details for the advance of a collection of consultant­ traces for using animals in examine then in practise by way of the recent York Academy of Sciences' advert Hoc Committee on Animal learn. ! We quickly discovered, even though, that the survey constituted a useful source in its personal correct. during this ebook we current the result of the literature survey in addition to proper information regarding its legislative and old con­ textual content. we are hoping that this fabric could be beneficial to biomedical researchers grappling with animal welfare difficulties in addition to to social scientists drawn to tracing the evolution of the 20th-century part of the animal examine controversy. The time span lined by way of the survey used to be chosen to check the 20-year interval among the passage of the 1st federal Animal Welfare Act in 1966 and the newest laws regulating animal learn, which took impact in the course of 1986. Our research examines this transitional interval in the course of the pages of the medical literature. in the course of those 2 many years, animal re­ seek within the usa was once reworked. Activist animal safeguard enterprises catapulted difficult moral inquiries to nationwide promenade­ inence, throwing the clinical community2 into turmoil.

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Thus, the two newly legislated acts together affect a much larger component of the research community than previously, as was evidently the intent of their Congressional sponsors. "3o However, as the act was not rewritten to cover rats and mice, the current regulations still do not affect a large proportion of animals used in research and testing. It is significant that animal pain a~d distress during experimentation were directly confronted for the first time in these new regulations. This was accomplished by giving the institutional committees a mandate, under both the PHS Policy and the amended Animal Welfare Act, to consider pain and distress in their review of research practices, and by giving the facility's veterinarian the authority to bring his or her professional expertise to bear.

3 It remains an open question whether the research community is taking "this business" seriously enough, but one thing is clear: The number of articles in the scientific literature devoted to various aspects of the controversy has risen, and it has done so dramatically. In 1985, the latest year for which we have data, the number of such items found in five journals was almost 10 times larger than the number found in the same journals in 1977, the year of the FAS report. 1. ) For the moment, we will confine our discussion to the five journals searched by hand; afterwards, the analysis will be expanded to include data generated by computer searches of the entire scientific literature.

In the review of proposals, the IACUC shall determine that the proposed research conforms with the institution's assurance (see below) and meets the following requirements: 1. Procedures with animals will avoid or minimize discomfort, distress, and pain to the animals, consistent with sound research design. 2. Procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals will be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia, unless the procedure is justified for scientific reasons in writing by the investigator.

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