Applied Electrotechnology for Engineers by C.H. Laycock

By C.H. Laycock

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Example text

2 Norton's Theorem Any two-terminal network may be replaced by a current generator equal to the short-circuit output current of the network in parallel with an impedance equal to the input impedance of the network when all voltage and current sources have been replaced by their internal impedances. l9a. C. 25j)U The concept of a current generator may be new to the reader who may find difficulty in imagining a source that will deliver a constant current into whatever load is placed across it. Approximations to a constant-voltage generator are occasionally met.

22) This is the current division rule. 21a. 4 General Mesh Analysis A general method will be given by which the reader may write down the simultaneous equations for the solution of any linear network systematically, thus minimising the possibility of errors. A determinant method for conveniently solving these equations will be shown. 22a as a series of meshes or circuit loops. If we number the meshes 1 to n and insert a hypothetical clockwise circulating-current (/1 to In) in each mesh, we may write down Kirchhoff's voltage equation for each mesh assuming clockwise currents positive and voltages positive if they induce clockwise currents.

The phasor VI is known as the apparent power S whose unit is the volt ampere. 3 Applied Electrotechnology for Engineers Power -factor Correction Because the total power in an a,c. single-phase circuit is VI cos ¢ it is clear that the reactive power VI sin ¢ and, therefore, the reactive current do not contribute to the power of a system. Unfortunately, however , the conductors connecting an electrical source to a load of phase angle ¢ have to be heavy enough to transmit the total current I and not just its active component I cos ¢ .