By John P Gluck;Tony Dipasquale;F Barbara Orlans
This quantity is a suite of chapters all contributed by way of people who have awarded their rules at meetings and who take average stands with using animals in examine. in particular the chapters endure of the problems of: notions of the ethical standings of animals, historical past of the equipment of argumentation, wisdom of the animal brain, nature and cost of regulatory constructions, how appreciate for animals might be switched over from idea to motion within the laboratory. The chapters were tempered by way of open dialogue with people with varied reviews and never audiences of actual believers. it's the desire of all, that cautious attention of the positions in those chapters will depart reader with a deepened understanding--not unavoidably a hardened place.
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Extra resources for Applied Ethics in Animal Research
33 character, objections also arise against a universal claim to deduct the value of a life from its quality independently from the moral agent’s spectrum of possible actions and the necessity to make a concrete moral decision. Furthermore, from a deontological view, one can protest that by ascribing value to a being it is already being seized, instrumentalized; it is no longer regarded as an invaluable end in itself but is given a price—something that Frey had set out to avoid. Finally, from a utilitarian position, one could object that the qualityof-life concept seems to look at only one side of the coin: the more potential for enrichment, the more value.
I believe we should err on the side of the latter—in dubio pro reo (in doubt for the accused). 19 Yet our abilities for moral treatment of other beings are bound to our knowledge about them. As J. C. Wolf explains, “We need empirical data on the nature of those affected by our decisions and have to be able to project ourselves into their situation—otherwise, the realization of the consequences of our action will hardly motivate us to moral consideration” ( J. C. Wolf 1992, 174, translation by the author).
If I understand Frey’s argument correctly, however, it is a utilitarian answer to a Kantian question:8 namely, it is easiest to justify using those living beings as means to some end we deem worthy that least enjoy their life (and therefore have not much to contribute to the overall balance of pleasure over pain in the world, I assume). 9 This fact alone, of course, cannot count as an argument against such an approach. It does provide an incentive, however, for closer scrutiny. Frey’s notion that it would be only consistent to say that “researchers may use those humans Gluck_025_054_CH03 10/23/01 12:57 PM Page 30 30 Nikola Biller-Andorno who fall below the standard of sharing [in the characteristics selected as relevant] just as they use animals in scientific/medical research” (Frey, current volume) is not only “unpalatable,” as he observes, but runs counter to the central ideas of many religions as well as to our secular human rights.