By C. E. Crouthamel, F. Adams, R. Dams, R. Belcher and H. Freiser (Auth.)
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Mostly the use of thin ultraviolet transmitting glass windows will be sufficient even for scintillators in which the emission extends into the near ultraviolet. The long wavelength threshold for the S 10, S 11, and S 20 cathodes varies between 6200 and 8500 Ä, so that thermionic emission at room temperature is very small. On the contrary the spectral response of the earlier developed Ag-Cs-O cathode ( S I ) shows a maximum at 8500 Ä. The thresh old lying at 12,000 Ä, this results in a thermionic emission which exceeds that of the stand ard cathodes with a factor of about 103.
THE D E T E C T I O N OF S C I N T I L L A T I O N S This section provides a brief outline of the collection of photons emitted by the scintil lator, their conversion into photoelectrons at the photocathode, and the subsequent multi plication of the electrons in the photomultiplier. The light collection on the photosensitive cathode should be as efficient as possible. Therefore the scintillator must be transparent and should be surrounded by a reflector. One side of the scintillator is optically coupled to the glass of the photomultiplier to reduce the fraction of photons internally reflected at this side.
The hole is then moved successively to the locations to be checked, and the light pulser (see Chapter 6) is turned on. Using a pulse height analyzer, the relative outputs from different spots may be read. Thus a contour map may be plotted point by point. (18> In those arrangements where very thin scintillators are to be used, it may be advantage ous to introduce a short light pipe because mapping contours do not insure finding a uni form photomultiplier tube. However, if a reasonably uniform photocathode can be obtained by selection, then the best energy resolution can be obtained by mounting the crystal directly onto the photomultiplier tube.