By Stephen Leon Lipscomb

To determine items that reside within the fourth size we people would have to upload a fourth measurement to our third-dimensional imaginative and prescient. An instance of such an item that lives within the fourth measurement is a hyper-sphere or “3-sphere.” the hunt to visualize the elusive 3-sphere has deep ancient roots: medieval poet Dante Alighieri used a 3-sphere to show his allegorical imaginative and prescient of the Christian afterlife in his Divine Comedy. In 1917, Albert Einstein visualized the universe as a 3-sphere, describing this imagery as “the position the place the reader’s mind's eye boggles. no one can think this thing.” over the years, in spite of the fact that, realizing of the idea that of a measurement developed. via 2003, a researcher had effectively rendered into human imaginative and prescient the constitution of a 4-web (think of an ever increasingly-dense spider’s web). during this textual content, Stephen Lipscomb takes his leading edge measurement thought learn a step additional, utilizing the 4-web to bare a brand new partial snapshot of a 3-sphere. Illustrations help the reader’s realizing of the math in the back of this technique. Lipscomb describes a working laptop or computer application which may produce partial photos of a 3-sphere and indicates equipment of discerning different fourth-dimensional gadgets that could function the root for destiny art.

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**Example text**

2. 3). Fig. 3 Two faithful and one non-faithful representations of a circle. ” question. Well, we can judge any arrangement of dots as to whether the representation is faithful or non-faithful. It turns out that the collection of dots that form our partial picture of S 3 is indeed a faithful representation — we know that each dot within the picture represents one and only one point on the 3-sphere. Another feature of any such picture is the number of dots, which is determined by the density of the small squares (cells) that deﬁne the graph paper.

Remember that by “Euclidean geometry” Einstein means the ordinary geometry where parallel lines do not meet, etc. So to continue with the Einstein quote, we pause to note that he now steps up one dimension. That is, he uses “S” to denote “a point in ordinary 3-dimensional human visual space,” and “sphere” to mean a 3-disc (solid ball with a 2-sphere boundary). And L denotes the 3-disc shadow of a 3-disc L. So parallel to the lower-dimensional cases, we now have a shadow L that is the stereographic image of a solid ball L that lives inside a 3-sphere.

The line R adds an extra dimension to Freddy’s visual plane. Analogously, consider R × S 2 : We step up one dimension, seeing S 2 with our 3-dimensional vision. But to see R × S 2 we, like Freddy, need a line R that runs outside of our visual plane while touching our visual plane only at a single point. That is, we need an extra dimension to see R × S 2 . §21 R × S 3 Turning to R × S 3 , we cannot visualize R × S 3 because we cannot visualize S 3 . Nevertheless, with the R × S 1 hollow pipe picture coupled with our understanding of the need for an extra dimension to see R × S 2 , we have enough background to understand EU R × S 3 .