Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions, 9th Edition by Chris Spatz

By Chris Spatz

Research statistical reasoning and challenge fixing from a best--selling writer who makes use of a wealth of examples from the social and behavioral sciences,, education,, nursing/allied health,, and enterprise fields----as good as examples from daily life--to assist you examine and understand.. Praised for his transparent explanations,, Spatz indicates you ways first of all an information set,, establish the questions it poses,, be certain and perform statistical procedures,, and utilizing simple English,, inform the tale the knowledge exhibit.

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5” “5” “5” The three 5s all look the same. However, the three variables (identification number, finish place, and time) are quite different. Because of the differences, each 5 has a different interpretation. To illustrate this difference, consider another person whose answers to the same three questions were 10, 10, and 10. If you take the first question by itself and know that the two people had scores of 5 and 10, what can you say? You can say that the first runner was different from the second, but that is all.

On the one hand, if you are displaying two overlapping distributions on the same axes, a frequency polygon is less cluttered than a histogram. On the other hand, it is easier to read frequencies from a histogram, and histograms are the better choice when you are presenting discrete data. ) Bar Graph A bar graph is used to present the frequencies of the categories of a qualitative variable. A conventional bar graph looks exactly like a histogram except for the wider spaces between the bars. The space is usually a signal that a qualitative bar graph variable is being graphed.

KEY TERMS Dependent variable (p. 13) Descriptive statistics (p. 2) Epistemology (p. 15) Extraneous variable (p. 14) Independent variable (p. 13) Inferential statistics (p. 2) Interval scale (p. 10) Level (p. 13) ■ 21 22 ■ Chapter 1 Lower limit (p. 7) Mean (p. 2) Nominal scale (p. 10) Ordinal scale (p. 10) Parameter (p. 6) Population (p. 6) Qualitative variable (p. 8) Quantitative variable (p. 7) Ratio scale (p. 11) Sample (p. 6) Statistic (p. 6) Treatment (p. 13) Upper limit (p. 7) Variable (p.

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