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In terms of everyday calculations, both the force method and the displacement method quickly reached their limits during the skyscraper boom of the 1920s. Relief initially came in the form of iterative methods such as those of Hardy Cross (1930), with which the internal forces of systems with a high degree of static indeterminacy could be quickly handled in a very simple way. Rationalisation of structural calculations thus became a scientific object in theory of structures. 1 Accumulation phase Structural analysis spread to other technical fields during the accumula- (1900 –1925) tion phase: reinforced concrete construction, mechanical and plant engineering, crane-building and, finally, aircraft construction.
Just a few years later, Konrad Zuse would be using such a machine: the “engineer’s computing machine” [Zuse, 1936]. Cross represents the Henry Ford-type manner of production in structural calculations at the transition to the integration period of structural analysis. No wonder countless publications on his method appeared until well into the 1960s. 4 Integration period Aviation engineering, too, soon reached its limits using the methods (1950 to date) adapted from theory of structures supplemented by theories of lightweight construction.
2-2b): ! Σ Ma = 0 l F · l1 ≠ F · l2 (no equilibrium) If two bodies on given lever arms are in equilibrium, and F1 or F2 is changed, then the condition ! Σ Ma = 0 l F1 · l1 = F2 · l2 (equilibrium) (2-1) must be satisfied (Fig. 2-2c). Archimedes’ precise formulation of the lever principle (2-1) – based on centuries of practical experience of such simple machines – was the first time that the phenomenon of equilibrium had been expressed mathematically. 2008 11:44:25 Uhr Almost 1500 years were to pass before Jordanus Nemorarius (?