Biology, history, threat, surveillance and control of the by Zimmermann H. et al.

By Zimmermann H. et al.

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However, the acceptability and suitability of many other economically important Opuntia species to cactoblastis attack are not yet known. These include four opuntias used for forage and vegetable (O. amyclaea, O. hyptiacantha, O. leucotricha and O. tapona), and six species used for forage (O. azurea, O. cantabrigiensis, O. durangensis, O. phaeacantha, O. rastrera and O. macrocentra). Host specificity studies (see Chapter 6) that include as many of these species as possible are urgently needed. Threat to other countries In addition to the USA and Mexico, countries around the world make use occurring or introduced species of produce various products destined for many other of naturally Opuntia to local use or consumption, or for export.

Ficus-indica 2,000 cochineal dye & fruit fruit destined for export; high income from cochineal dye Peru O. ficus-indica 70,000 cochineal dye, fodder & fruit 75% of world’s cochineal production Bolivia O. ficus-indica 1,000 cochineal dye, fodder & fruit becoming increasingly important Italy O. ficus-indica 30,000 fruit, fodder, pharmaceutical major industry in Sicily Spain O. ficus-indica 1,000 fruit mainly non-commercial Canary Islands O. ficus-indica 1,000 cochineal dye & fruit high income from cochineal dye Israel O.

Var. stricta using Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) in an area of New South Wales, Australia, where Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) is not a successful biological control agent. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 48: 241-255. E. D. Murray 1988. Distribution and biological control of cactus species in eastern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly 3: 115-123. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2002. Mitigating the Threat of Cactoblastis cactorum to International Agriculture and Ecological Systems and Biodiversity.

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