By Bernhard Graimann, Brendan Z. Allison, Gert Pfurtscheller
A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes an instantaneous output channel among the human mind and exterior units. BCIs infer person motive through direct measures of mind job and hence let verbal exchange and keep watch over with out circulation. This booklet, authored by way of specialists within the box, presents an available creation to the neurophysiological and signal-processing heritage required for BCI, offers cutting-edge non-invasive and invasive methods, supplies an summary of present and software program strategies, and experiences the main fascinating in addition to new, rising BCI purposes. The booklet is meant not just for college kids and younger researchers, but in addition for rookies and different readers from different backgrounds prepared to profit approximately this very important medical endeavour.
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Additional info for Brain-computer interfaces : revolutionizing human-computer interaction
Bischof, J. Jansa, and G. Pfurtscheller, The self-paced Graz Brain-computer interface: Methods and applications. Comput Intell Neurosci, (2007). 48. G. Pfurtscheller, T. Solis-Escalante, R. Ortner, and P. Linortner, Self-Paced operation of an SSVEP-based orthosis with and without an imagery-based brain switch: A feasibility study towards a Hybrid BCI. , 409–414, (2010). 49. Z. Allison, C. Brunner, V. R. Müller-Putz, C. Neuper, and G. Pfurtscheller, Toward a hybrid brain–computer interface based on imagined movement and visual attention.
Guger, S. Daban, E. Sellers, C. Holzner, G. Krausz, R. Carabalona, F. Gramatica, and G. Edlinger, How many people are able to control a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI)? , 94–98, (2009). 12. G. Pfurtscheller, G. Müller-Putz, B. Graimann, R. Scherer, R. Leeb, C. Brunner, C. Keinrath, G. Townsend, M. Naeem, F. Lee, D. Zimmermann, and E. Höfler, Graz-Brain-Computer Interface: State of Research. In R. ), Toward brain-computer interfacing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 65–102, (2007). 13. S.
Further research is needed to determine whether human LFP evoked responses or rhythms are useful input signals for BCI systems. g. 102]. Early studies showed that the firing rates of individual cortical neurons could be operantly conditioned [103–105]. Monkeys were able to increase or decrease single-neuron firing rates when rewarded for doing so. While such control was typically initially associated with specific muscle activity, the muscle activity tended to drop out as conditioning continued.