Case studies in occupational epidemiology by Kyle Steenland

By Kyle Steenland

This casebook is designed to be used in classes on epidemiology or occupational epidemiology. The chapters are in response to genuine stories and are written via the significant investigators. they're divided into 4 elements: cohort stories, case-control and proportionate mortality reports, cross-sectional reviews, and surveillance and screening experiences. a quick advent to every half describes the research layout, and a statistical appendix is incorporated in order that scholars can simply locate the instruments had to solution analytical questions within the textual content. Questions in each one bankruptcy care for research layout, info assortment, research, and interpretation. entire solutions are supplied on the finish of every bankruptcy. info units accompany a few of the chapters, and lots of the analytical questions should be spoke back with a pocket calculator.The reports provided during this lucid, well-organized textual content contain a extensive variety of illness results, together with spontaneous abortion, carpal tunnel syndrome, kidney disorder, cytogenetic adjustments, ischemic center sickness, dermatitis, power renal illness, and a number of other sorts of melanoma. The exposures of curiosity are both diversified, together with VDT use, repetitive hand-wrist movement, heavy metals, carbon monoxide, diesel exhaust, lead, vinyl chloride, insecticides, solvents, silica, and acid mists. those results and exposures conceal the various present issues of curiosity in occupational overall healthiness

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Knowing the approximate number and age structure of the person-years at risk for this cohort from the already completed mortality study and knowing (at least approximately) the age-specific laryngeal cancer rates for a nonexposed population (see below), it was possible to determine that approximately three or four laryngeal cancers were expected. Using the formula cited above, the investigators determined that in this cohort there was sufficient power to detect a twofold risk of larynx cancer. From the standpoint of sample size the study appeared worthwhile.

While age-specific rates were available both for the exposed cohort and the various possible comparison populations (Connecticut, New York, and the United States), the comparison populations did not consistently have rates available during the entire calendar period of interest (1940s through the 1980s). Some procedure would have to be adopted to confront this problem. ANSWER 5. The exposed cohorts worked and lived in the Midwest, and it would have been preferable for the nonexposed comparison rates to come from the Midwest as well.

Hospital-based case-control studies consist of a series of cases identified via a hospital or hospitals. Controls are chosen from the nondiseased in the same hospitals. Since the controls will have some other disease, special care must be taken to choose other diseases not associated with the exposure of interest. Otherwise, the comparison of the proportion exposed among the cases and controls will not be valid, in that the exposure proportion among the controls will not be a valid reflection of the proportion to be expected among all those 48 Case-Control and Proportionate Mortality Studies who are hospitalized without the disease of interest.

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