By Michal Polák (auth.)
The conventional Marxian photo of a two-class polarisation turns out some distance faraway from trendy assorted society. Re-examining the very foundations of the Marxian thought within the method, the writer argues that very important opinions can fruitfully be understood and to complete the objective, he extends the normal strategies in cutting edge and unique ways.
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Extra info for Class, Surplus, and the Division of Labour: A Post-Marxian Exploration
We would not need to know anything about exploitative relations, and we could still identify the three basic classes and the contradictory locations using It’s Not What You Have, It’s What You Do 33 just Wright’s dimensions of control. The division-of-labour concept of classes thus entirely displaces exploitation as the basis for the class relation in Wright’s initial formulation of his theory. A reformulation: multiple exploitations Now it is precisely this fact that Wright came to consider a problem for his conceptualisation.
Had he adopted the Srafﬁan standpoint, it would be easy to see that the wage can still be understood as the cost of reproduction of labour-power, while proﬁt is equivalent to the surplus product produced by the (collective) labour-power; this clearly implies that above-standard wages need be in no way the result of ‘exploitation’, but rather the lessening of it, precisely as required. However, even under the purely neoclassical approach Wright’s reasoning is faulty. The marginal product of labour is the notional measure of the effectiveness of additional labour, not the product of any actual workers (which might be better measured by the average product).
It is not and cannot be suggested by Wright that they also appropriate someone else’s labour by a mechanism different from the capitalist wage-labour. If it were, then the argument above against contradiction would apply, and such people would be party to multiple modes of exploitation without any contradiction in their own interests. Wright’s self-criticisms On the basis of his conception of exploitation Wright proceeded to identify classes and contradictory class positions. However, he also described 40 Class, Surplus, and the Division of Labour unresolved problems, some of which in fact later on (Wright 1989) led him to draw back from this conceptualisation.