By M. L. Gulrajani
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Extra resources for Colour Measurement: Principles, Advances and Industrial Applications
Matthias Klotz (1748–1821), a German painter, also proposed a three-dimensional © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2010 Scales for communicating colours 21 colour order system based on independent perceptual colour attributes. He proposed the cylindrical colour order system that consisted of a well-defined lightness scale (Kuehni, 2008b). About 100 years later Albert Munsell introduced a system based on intensive scientific studies very similar to the above systems. Four-dimensional Riemannian colour space was first proposed by Helmholtz with the help of a linear element which is difficult to define precisely and hence, the conceptualisation remained unclear.
2 Chromatic adaptation and gain control mechanisms The human visual system is able to adapt in such a way that the colour of an object remains unchanged, despite any changes in the light. Thus, chromatic adaptation is defined as the ability of the visual system to deduct the light spectrum so as to preserve the chromatic appearance of that object. A sheet of paper seen with daylight or under a light bulb will always seem white, even though sunlight is much more blue than the light from a tungsten bulb, and if we measure the colour of that piece of paper with a photometer in both situations, the results are very different.
The paint and printing ink manufacturers also publish shade cards for their products (colours) with names very specific to the concerned industry. However the exemplifications are very limited. They are restricted to the specific type of colorant or substrate and cannot be used for general reference. In the modern age, the celebrated German scientist A. G. Werner (1750–1817) was probably first to standardise colours by developing a method of describing minerals by their external characteristics like colours.