Community of the Cross: Moravian Piety in Colonial Bethlehem by Craig D. Atwood

By Craig D. Atwood

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was once a different colonial city. It used to be the 1st everlasting outpost of the Moravians in North the US and served because the headquarters for his or her huge missionary efforts. It used to be additionally essentially the most profitable communal societies in American historical past. Bethlehem used to be based as a 'congregation of the go' the place all points of non-public and social existence have been subordinated to the non secular perfect of the neighborhood. In group of the pass Craig D. Atwood bargains a powerful portrait of Bethlehem and its faith. viewers to Bethlehem, akin to Benjamin Franklin, remarked at the orderly and peaceable nature of existence in the neighborhood, its striking structure, and 'high' tradition. although, many non-Moravians have been embarrassed or maybe angry via the social and devotional lifetime of the Moravians. The adoration of the crucified Jesus, specially his wounds, used to be the point of interest of extreme devotion for adults and youngsters alike. Moravians worshiped the Holy Spirit as 'Mother,' and made the magical marriage to Christ important to their marital intimacy. every little thing, even relations existence, was once to be a sort of worship. Atwood finds the deep connection among lifestyles in Bethlehem and the spiritual symbolism of arguable German theologian Nicholas von Zinzendorf, whose provocative and erotic adoration of the injuries of Jesus used to be a vital a part of deepest and communal existence. utilizing the theories of Rene Girard, Mary Douglas, and Victor Turner, Atwood exhibits that it used to be the Moravians' liturgy and devotion that united the neighborhood and encouraged either its special social constitution and challenge attempt.

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Ted Campbell, Religion of the Heart: A Study of European Religious Life in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, ), –. . Spangenberg claimed that the Moravians read Guyon only in order to find what was worthwhile in her works and refute what was erroneous; Leben des Herrn Nikolaus Ludwig, . On the Quiestist controversy, see Podmore, Moravian Church in England, –. 10483$ $CH1 01-09-04 08:45:30 PS                                          Jakob Bo¨ hme, a cobbler from Go¨ rlitz in the early seventeenth century, wrote several mystical treatises that became very popular among radical Pietists in the eighteenth century.

Macon: Mercer University Press, ), –. . Lindberg, The Third Reformation? , quoting Martin Schmidt, ‘‘Pietismus,’’ in Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart : –. 36 What marked Spener’s edition of Arndt’s popular sermons as the beginning of a reform movement, though, was his preface, which outlined a pragmatic program of church and social reform. 37 Among these were intellectualism, argumentativeness, and immorality. Spener did more than criticize; he offered practical suggestions on how to create a new reformation in the church.

For a brief account of the Moravian work in the colonies, including Zinzendorf’s visit in the early s, see John R. Weinlick, ‘‘Moravianism in the American Colonies,’’ in Stoeffler, Continental Pietism, –; Atwood, ‘‘Introduction,’’ ix–xxiii. . Fogleman, Hopeful Journeys, –. . Donald Durnbaugh, ‘‘Communitarian Societies in Colonial America,’’ in Pitzer, America’s Communal Utopias, –. Longenecker, Piety and Tolerance, –; cf. Ward, Protestant Evangelical Awakening, –; Klaus Deppermann, ‘‘Pennylvanien als Asyl des fru¨ hren deutschen Pietismus,’’ Pietismus und Neuzeit  (): –.

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