By L. Meirovitch
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Optimization is mostly a discount operation of a distinct volume. This strategy certainly happens in the environment and during our actions. for instance, many average structures evolve, as a way to reduce their strength strength. Modeling those phenomena then principally depends on our potential to artificially reproduce those strategies.
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The significance of the elastic limit in structural design lies in the fact that it represents the maximum allowable stress before the material undergoes permanent deformation. Therefore, the engineer must know the elastic modulus of the material because it influences the rigidity of a design. At a high stress level (Fig. , it will not be reversed if the specimen is unloaded). This strain is called the plastic or inelastic strain. The amount of inelastic strain that can occur before failure is a measure of the ductility of the material.
With prestressed concrete by tensioning the steel tendons, a precompression is introduced such that the tensile stresses during service are counteracted to prevent cracking. Large amounts of concrete find their way into reinforced or prestressed structural elements. The durability of concrete to aggressive waters is responsible for the fact that its use has been extended to severe industrial and natural environments (Fig. 1-4). The second reason for the widespread use of concrete is the ease with which structural concrete elements can be formed into a variety of shapes and sizes Figure 1-3 Central Arizona project pipeline.
The 452-m high structure composed of two, 88-story buildings and their pinnacles, optimized the use of steel and reinforced concrete. Steel was used primarily in the long-span floor beams, while reinforced concrete was used in the central core, in the perimeter columns, and in the tower perimeter ring beams. The strength of the concrete used in the building and foundation ranged from 35 to 80 MPa. 27. The strength test was performed at 56 days to allow the slower reacting materials, such as fly ash, to contribute to the strength gain.