Concurrent Programming in Java(TM): Design Principles and by Doug Lea

By Doug Lea

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While there is no guarantee that identityHashCode is unique, in practice run-time systems rely on codes to be distinct with a very high probability. To be even safer about it, you could override method hashCode or introduce another tag method to ensure uniqueness in any classes employing resource ordering. 4. One further check, alias detection, can be applied in methods using nested synchronization to handle cases in which two (or more) of the references are actually bound to the same object. For example, in swapValue, you can check whether a Cell is being asked to swap with itself.

Similarly, if you create and start a new thread T and then create an object X used by thread T, you cannot be sure that the fields of X will be visible to T unless you employ synchronization surrounding all references to object X. Or, when applicable, you can create X before starting T. 4. As a thread terminates, all written variables are flushed to main memory. 2). Note that visibility problems never arise when passing references to objects across methods in the same thread. The memory model guarantees that, given the eventual occurrence of the above operations, a particular update to a particular field made by one thread will eventually be visible to another.

All fields are initialized to a consistent state in constructors. The state of the object is consistent (obeys invariants) at both the beginning and end of each method, even in the presence of exceptions. Vector. length); } data[size++] = x; } public synchronized void removeLast() throws NoSuchElementException { if (size == 0) throw new NoSuchElementException(); data[--size] = null; } } Without synchronization, an instance of this class could not be used reliably in concurrent settings. For example, it could encounter a read/write conflict if processing the accessor at while in the midst of a removeLast operation.

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