De Anima: Books II and III (With Passages From Book I) by Aristotle

By Aristotle

Aristotle's De Anima has a declare to be the 1st systematic remedy of concerns within the philosophy of brain, and likewise to be one of many maximum works at the topic. This quantity presents a correct translation of Books II and III, including a few phrases, to aid the scholar of philosophy who doesn't understand Greek. because the unique e-book of this quantity, Aristotle's philosophy of brain has been the point of interest of full of life scholarly debate; for this revised variation, Christopher Shields had further a considerable assessment of this fresh paintings, including a brand new bibliography.

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431). And since human existence involves the highest end, it is an end ‘to which he may subject the whole of nature’ (sec. 84, p. 435). And if we operate under the assumption that there must be an interconnection of all ends, then man is the final end of creation. For without man the chain of mutually subordinated ends would have no point of attachment. Only in man, and only in him as the individual being to whom the moral law applies, do we find unconditional legislation in respect of ends. That legislation, therefore, is what alone qualifies him to be a final end to which the entire nature is teleologically subordinated.

So Kant says: ‘It is, I mean, quite certain that we can never get a sufficient knowledge of organized beings and their inner possibility, much less get an explanation of them, by looking merely to mechanical principles of nature’ (p. 400). Even a being with superior, but still finite, powers would be in the same position: we can never get rid of the appeal to a completely different source of generation for the possibility of a product of this kind, namely that of a causality by ends. It is utterly impossible for human reason, or for any finite reason qualitatively resembling ours, however much it may surpass it in degree, to hope to understand the generation even of a blade of grass from mere mechanical causes.

61 f. ¹⁷ Phys ii 3, 194b29, Cael i 4, 271a33, i 9, 279a27, GC i 3, 318a1, Meta i 3, 984b15. 15–24; Verrycken 1990, p. 224). It has been argued that later in his career, as a ‘Christian philosopher’ as opposed to an ‘Alexandrian Platonist’, Philoponus changed his position and rejected the view of Aristotle’s god as an efficient cause, limiting it to a final cause (Verrycken 1990, pp. ). See Sorabji 1990b, pp. 185 f. ¹⁹ For a thorough discussion of the translation of Aristotelian teleological concepts from Greek into Arabic, see Wisnovsky 2003a, pp.

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