By N. Subramanian
This ebook presents an in depth insurance of the layout of bolstered concrete constructions based on the present Indian code of perform (IS 456: 2000). As a few of the Indian code provisions are outmoded, the yankee code provisions are supplied, anyplace valuable. additionally, an try out is made to combine the provisions of IS 456 with earthquake code (IS 13920), as greater than 60% of India falls lower than average or critical earthquake zones. The textual content relies at the restrict kingdom method of layout and covers parts akin to the houses of concrete, layout of assorted structural components reminiscent of compression and pressure contributors, beams & slabs, and layout for flexure, shear torsion, uni-axial and biaxial bending and interplay of those forces. each one bankruptcy gains solved examples, evaluate questions, and perform difficulties in addition to considerable illustrations that complement the textual content. An exhaustive checklist of references in addition to appendices on strut-and-tie-method, houses of soils, and sensible tips upload worth to the wealthy contents of book.
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Extra info for Design of reinforced concrete structures
For example, dissimilar metal corrosion can occur in balconies where embedded aluminium railings are in contact with the reinforcing steel. Conventional concrete contains pores or micro-cracks. Detrimental substances or water can penetrate through these cracks or pores, leading to corrosion of steel bars. When corrosion takes place, the resulting rust occupies more than three times the original volume of steel from which it is formed. This drastic expansion creates tensile stresses in the concrete, which can eventually cause cracking, delamination, and spalling of cover concrete (see Fig.
3 of IS 13920 stipulates that steel reinforcements of grade Fe 415 or less should be used in structures situated The sample can be macro-etched with nital (ﬁve % nitric acid in earthquake zones. 5 per cent, are a darker annular region corresponding to martensite or bainite also allowed. For providing sufﬁcient bond between the bars microstructure and a lighter core region. and the concrete, the area, height, and pitch of ribs should By micro-alloying with elements such as copper, satisfy Clause 5 of IS 1786 (see Fig.
Due to the pre-placement of ﬁbres, its ﬁbre volume fraction may be as high as 6–20 per cent. The conﬁning effect of numerous ﬁbres yields high compressive strengths from 90 MPa to 210 MPa, and the strong ﬁbre bridging leads to tensile stain hardening behaviour in some SIFCONs. Slurry inﬁltrated mat concrete (SIMCON) is similar to SIFCON, but uses pre-placed ﬁbre mat instead of steel ﬁbres. SIFCON and SIMCON are extremely ductile and hence ideally suitable for seismic retroﬁt of structures (Dogan and Krstulovic-Opara 2003).