Orangutans: Geographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and by Serge A. Wich, S. Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia,

By Serge A. Wich, S. Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia, Carel P. van Schaik

This booklet describes considered one of our closest family, the orangutan, and the one extant nice ape in Asia. it's more and more transparent that orangutan populations exhibit huge version in behavioral ecology, morphology, existence heritage, and genes. certainly, at the power of the most recent genetic and morphological facts, it's been proposed that orangutans truly represent species which diverged greater than 1000000 years in the past - one at the island of Sumatra the opposite on Borneo, with the latter comprising 3 subspecies. This booklet has major goals. the 1st is to scrupulously evaluate facts from each orangutan examine website, studying the diversities and similarities among orangutan species, subspecies and populations. the second one is to enhance a theoretical framework during which those alterations and similarities should be defined. to accomplish those objectives the editors have assembled the world's top orangutan specialists to scrupulously synthesize and evaluate the knowledge, quantify the similarities or ameliorations, and search to provide an explanation for them. Orangutans is the 1st synthesis of orangutan biology to undertake this novel, comparative technique. It analyses and compares the newest info, constructing a theoretical framework to provide an explanation for morphological, existence historical past, and behavioral version. Intriguingly, now not all behavioral adjustments may be attributed to ecological edition among and in the islands; relative charges of social studying additionally seem to have been influential. The e-book additionally emphasizes the an important influence of human cost on orangutans and appears forward to the longer term clients for the survival of severely endangered normal populations.

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2006). Further, Kanthaswamy et al. explain the reduced Bornean mtDNA variability by founder effects associated with relatively recent colonization of the island followed by geographical expansion, genetic drift and bottlenecks of specific lineages caused by habitat reduction. 5 Small scale: Genetic diversity in a fragmented population of Bornean orangutan (Goossens et al. 2005a) and rivers influence the population genetic structure of orangutans (Jalil et al. 2008) In these papers, the authors investigated the genetic structure within and among forest fragments scattered alongside the Kinabatangan river, in Sabah, Malaysia, using microsatellites (Goossens et al.

2000), PopGene (Yeh et al. 1997), DnaSP (Rozas and Rozas 1999; Rozas et al. 2003) or Genetix (Belkhir et al. 1996/1997) among many others. 2 Detection and quantification of demographic events As noted above, the description of patterns is interesting because it should allow us to better understand the recent (or not so recent) evolution of the species of interest. Mismatch distributions have been extensively used with mtDNA data to determine whether signals of expansions can be detected and dated.

More should be done to increase the geographic sampling and using the same loci across studies. One interesting and consistent result was that rivers appear to play a significant role at different geographic and hence temporal scales. The fact that Jalil et al. ’s (2005a) data support the idea that mtDNA may be influenced by events much older than those that shaped microsatellite diversity. Indeed, whereas Goossens et al. (2006a) showed that recent habitat fragmentation significantly affected the genetic make-up of orangutans from the Kinabatangan, mtDNA patterns appear to be more affected by events related to the colonization of the island.

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