Science Policies and Twentieth-Century Dictatorships: Spain, by Amparo Gómez, Antonio Fco. Canales, Brian Balmer

By Amparo Gómez, Antonio Fco. Canales, Brian Balmer

Creating a clean contribution to the political historical past of technology, this ebook explores the connections among the technology guidelines of 3 international locations that every skilled enormous political upheaval within the 20th century: Spain, Italy and Argentina. by way of focussing on those 3 nations, the participants may be able to current case reviews that spotlight the features and specificities of the democratic and dictatorial political tactics keen on the creation of technological know-how and expertise. the point of interest on dictatorship provides the chance to extend our wisdom -beyond the extra wide literature approximately technological know-how in Nazi Germany and Stalinist USSR -about the extent of political involvement of scientists in non-democratic contexts and to what volume they act as politicians in numerous contexts. Key issues coated comprise the hot types of association and institutionalization of technology within the 20th century; the involvement of medical groups within the governance of technology and its associations; the position of ideology in medical improvement; the medical practices followed by way of medical groups in several contexts; and the features of technology and know-how produced in those contexts.

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Science Policies and Twentieth-Century Dictatorships: Spain, Italy and Argentina

Creating a clean contribution to the political background of technological know-how, this publication explores the connections among the technological know-how guidelines of 3 nations that every skilled huge political upheaval within the 20th century: Spain, Italy and Argentina. by way of focussing on those 3 nations, the participants may be able to current case experiences that spotlight the features and specificities of the democratic and dictatorial political strategies enthusiastic about the creation of technological know-how and expertise.

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Torino: Einaudi. , 1993. Universal Ice: Science and Ideology in the Nazi State. London: Belhaven Press. , 1945. Science – The Endless Frontier: A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Washington: US Government Printing Office. , 2012. ‘The Royal Society and the Rothschild “Controversy” 1971–1972’. org/events/2013/rothschildcontroversy [Accessed 4 February 2014]. , 2014. Engineers and the Making of the Francoist Regime. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. , 1978. Science in Culture: The Early Victorian Period.

The application of these racial laws resulted in the expulsion of one tenth of the number of professors (Israel and Nastasis, pp. 251–8), still a far cry from the situation in Spain. In general terms, intellectual Science Policy under Democracy and Dictatorship: An Introductory Essay 13 and scientific autonomy in Fascist Italy was widespread. Obviously, it was not possible openly to criticise the regime or the government, but the continuity of the non-Fascist scholars made it difficult for the Fascists to control knowledge.

Also note that, as Canales explains in his chapter, the Catholic Church did not want to dispose of science but instead to tame and subordinate it to theology. For the complex relationship between science and the Spanish Catholic Church after the Civil War, see also Camprubí (2014, Ch. 3). 10 So, as Maiocchi shows in his chapter, the Italian National Council for Research (CNR) was the key Italian scientific institution that should have transformed Italian science into an instrument that would be useful for Italy’s development and economic and military power.

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