By W.K. Silvers
Many investigators appear to be eager about the coat colours of the mam mals with which they paintings. This appears to be like the case really for these using isogenic lines of mice, not just simply because such lines demonstrate broad ly diversified phenotypes, yet simply because scientists, by way of definition, are an inquisi tive lot and it's occasionally tricky for the uninitiated to understand how such phenotypes are produced. This bewilderment turns into much more ap mum or dad if the investigator occurs to be taken with breeding stories and a few attractively coloured animals, relatively assorted from the unique shares, seem. therefore i will be able to keep in mind quite a few events whilst my colleagues, often operating in components thoroughly unrelated to any element of genetics, have come to me with an attractively pigmented animal or, much more likely, with a inhabitants of segregating coat colour forms (usually simply because they've got now not tended their animals correctly and feature ended up with a cage jam-packed with F 2S showing a few diverse colors). How, they ask, do such colours take place? whereas sometimes you may take chalk in hand and clarify what has been occurring (segregating) and why, in different instances it really is nearly very unlikely. this can be very tricky simply because whereas the interactions of many coat-color components obey the straightforward legislation of heredity and of predictable gene interactions, others do not.
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Additional info for The Coat Colors of Mice: A Model for Mammalian Gene Action and Interaction
Wolff, 1974). 5This association of the yellow phenotype with obesity in both Aiy and AVY genotypes led Dickie (1969a) to suggest that those environmental factors which stimulate phaeomelanin synthesis may block or inhibit a pathway used in normal fat metabolism (but see Section II, A, 2). 6Although A is usually regarded as the wild-type allele of this series by many authors, according to Griineberg (1952) this is an oversimplification. Thus he notes that the Western European house mouse (M. m. domesticus Rutty) usually is greybellied, but sporadic cases of AWare by no means rare, and there are entire populations in which this allele has replaced A (Clarke, 1914).
23 Thus the regional pigmentation pattern displayed by black-and-tan mice, like the agouti pattern, is determined by the dermis regardless of whether it is of ventral or dorsal origin (Poole and Silvers, 1976a). Experimental recombinations of 14- to 16-day-old embryonic at/at ventral dermis and at/at dorsal epidermis give rise to yellow-pigmented hairs, whereas the reciprocal combination of dorsal dermis and ventral epidermis develop hairs pigmented with eumelanin. Black hairs are likewise produced when at/at dorsal dermis is combined with a/a ventral epidermis or when a/a ventral dermis is associated with at/at ventral epidermis.
If the genes responsible for producing the sable phenotype in A Y / mice were incorporated into A /- animals, their backs were almost black, and agouti hairs with yellow tips were confined to the flanks and belly. Dunn's 36 Chapter 2: The Agouti and Extension Series of Alleles, Umbrous, and Sable investigations also revealed that the expression of both umbrous and sable varied between wide limits and that the darker grades produced the more variable offspring. 41 Barrows (1934) too studied the umbrous phenotype.