By Helena Jin, Cesar Sciammarella, Sanichiro Yoshida, Luciano Lamberti
Advancement of Optical tools in Experimental Mechanics, quantity three: court cases of the 2014 Annual convention on Experimental and utilized Mechanics, the 3rd quantity of 8 from the convention, brings jointly contributions to this crucial region of analysis and engineering. the gathering provides early findings and case stories on quite a lot of optical tools starting from conventional photoelasticity and interferometry to more moderen DIC and DVC suggestions, and comprises papers within the following basic technical study areas:
· complicated optical tools for frontier applications
· complex optical interferometry
· Optical size structures utilizing polarized light
· Optical equipment for complex production
· electronic snapshot correlation
· Optical equipment on the micro/nano-scale
· three-d imaging and volumetric correlation
· Imaging equipment for thermomechanics applications
· Opto-acoustical equipment in experimental mechanics
· Optical measurements in hard environments
· Optical tools for inverse problems
· Advances in optical methods
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Additional resources for Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics
The square has uniform zero phase and thus zero strain. (b–d) Horizontal strain calculated using Eq. 5) with step sizes k ¼ 1, k ¼ 2 and k ¼ 3, respectively. 6 presents experimental measurements and strain calculations done with the same slit-hole specimen used for Fig. 2. The successive rows of Fig. 6 show the results for increasing levels of horizontal compressive load. The left column shows the filtered phase maps, the center column shows the corresponding filtered strain maps computed using differentiation span k ¼ 1, and the right column shows the filtered strain maps computed using differentiation span k ¼ 2.
As expected, artifacts occur along the discontinuity lines aligned in the y-direction, perpendicular to the x-strain differentiation direction. When the step size is increased, these artifacts spread further. In addition, the step size determines strain calculation range. The upper limit is jdφij ¼ π/2k rad/pixel, so the maximum absolute strains for step sizes k ¼ 1, 2 and 3 are π/2, π/4 and π/6 rad/pixel, respectively. If the local strain exceeds the respective limit, aliasing occurs. This effect occurs for k ¼ 3 on the right side of Fig.
These issues are particularly challenging in areas of high strain because local data quality tends to deteriorate where there are high phase gradients. The numerical differentiation needed to evaluate strain from displacement data is very sensitive to the presence of noise, so significant smoothing is required. However, such smoothing must be applied in such a way as to minimize blurring of the results. This is done here by using a small mean filter template repeatedly applied to the raw displacement data.