By Nancy Wiegersma
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Additional info for Vietnam: Peasant Land, Peasant Revolution: Patriarchy and Collectivity in the Rural Economy
The ascendancy of the mandarinate as a ruling group, however, did not mean that Vietnam became a smaller version of the larger empire to the north. The Confucian tradition coming from China had emphasised strict hierarchy reinforced by ritual. The remoteness and aloofness of leadership in the Chinese model did not carry over into the Vietnamese context. Hierarchy was mitigated by the necessity, in Vietnam, of the mandarinate and the emperor aligning themselves with the peasantry to defeat the nobility and also to ward off intervention from the north.
In the traditional period the citizens on the list chose their notables on the criteria of age, which reputedly brought wisdom; wealth, which brought free time to devote to village activities; and mandarin title, which brought prestige. Colonialism In the mid-nineteenth century the French colonised the southern part of Vietnam and gained control of the north by the end of the century. With the French promotion of trade and commerce, colonialists entered Vietnam and looked for owners, someone with whom to make contact, someone with title to the land.
During the early Le period, the tax that the inscribed man had to pay to the public granary was less than 10 per cent of the produce from his khau phan (share of cong dien). He became personally subject to the tax at the time he was inscribed on the list of receivers of khau phan. By law, the inscribed would lose a tenth of a share of cong dien and be given eighty blows of the troung (stick) if he were late with his tax payment.