Cleomedes' Lectures on Astronomy: A Translation of ''The by Cleomedes

By Cleomedes

Cleomedes' treatise used to be a milestone within the background of astronomy, and is a useful source for college students of historical Stoicism besides.

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The latitudes of the Earth have diªering seasons caused by the motion of the Sun in the zodiacal circle. Chapter 4. The lengths of daytimes and nighttimes diªer at diªering latitudes because of the motion of the Sun in the zodiacal circle. ) Chapter 5. The shape of the Earth is spherical. Chapter 6. The Earth is at the center of the cosmos. Chapter 7. Digression: Posidonius’ and Eratosthenes’ measurements of the circumference of the Earth. Chapter 8. The size of the Earth is discountable in observations of all heavenly bodies except the Moon.

I. G. Kidd (1978b) 275–276 and 282, and, more fully at (1989), especially 148, links this report with the philosophy of science in F18EK. It could equally well serve as a programmatic rationale for ephodoi. 243, however, legitimately question the reliability of Diogenes’ doxography. 16 / Introduction ical first principles. Second, since Posidonius had a general interest in logic and the foundations of mathematics,49 we can assume that it extended to the demonstrations in physical theory and astronomy that he mentions in F18EK.

What could this be? A body? Impossible, since there is no body outside the cosmos. But even if there were a [body], it again, since it is limited, will have to be enclosed by a void. And again this void would, if it is not going to be unlimited, be enclosed by another body that would itself in turn be enclosed by another void, since this body too must have boundaries. This [process would go on] to an unlimited extent, and so bodies will come into existence that are unlimited both in number and in size.

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