By Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD
Within the look for a quick, sustainable and lasting restoration from the commercial main issue, technology, expertise and innovation are anticipated to play a using position. yet what are the results for technological know-how and innovation coverage? What steps are international locations taking to spice up their functions in those parts? What position are rising economies more likely to occupy within the technology, know-how and innovation panorama? The OECD technological know-how, know-how and Outlook 2010 reports key developments in technological know-how, know-how and innovation in OECD nations and a couple of significant rising economies together with Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. utilizing the most recent on hand facts and symptoms, it examines issues excessive at the time table of monetary coverage makers, together with functionality in technology and innovation, tendencies in nationwide technology, know-how and innovation guidelines and the layout and overview of innovation coverage, together with coverage interactions and the coverage combine. It presents person profiles of the technological know-how and innovation functionality of every kingdom and relates those to their nationwide context and present coverage challenges.Table of content material :ForewordOECD at 50 - technological know-how and know-how are everybody's businessBetter rules for higher livesExecutive SummaryChapter 1. Key developments in technological know-how, expertise and Innovation-A turbulent backdrop to contemporary rends in technological know-how, expertise and innovation-The fresh enlargement of R&D spending slowed via 2008-More contemporary facts recommend total R&D funding has slowed within the financial downturn-Human assets are a critical input to R&D and innovation-Reaping the results-The endured importance of globalisation-Annex 1.A1. courting of R&D expenditure progress to development in researcher numbersChapter 2. Main traits in technology, expertise and Innovation Policy-Introduction-National recommendations for technological know-how, know-how and innovation-Improving actors' capabilities and enhancing incentives for innovation-Enhancing networking between actors-Developing and strengthening human capital-Outlook: destiny challengesChapter three. technology and Innovation: kingdom Notes-Australia-Austria-Belgium-Brazil-Canada-Chile-China-Czech Republic-Denmark-Estonia-Finland-France-Germany-Greece-Hungary-Iceland-India-Indonesia-Ireland-Israel-Italy-Japan-Korea-Luxembourg-Mexico-Netherlands-New Zealand-Norway-Poland-Portugal-Russian Federation-Slovak Republic-Slovenia-South Africa-Spain-Sweden-Switzerland-Turkey-United Kingdom-United States-Annex 3.A1 - Description of symptoms and methodChapter four. The Innovation coverage Mix-Introduction-What is the coverage combine and the way is it useful?-Coherence within the coverage mix-International coverage studying and the coverage mix-Conclusion
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Additional info for OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2010
A survey of European firms, conducted in April 2009, found that enterprises were two to three times more likely to have adopted a “defensive” (innovation cost-cutting) strategy over an “offensive” (innovation expenditure-increasing) strategy in response to the economic downturn, although there were important country variations (EC, 2009a). Overall, 22% of firms had decreased their innovation expenditures in the previous six months as a direct result of the economic downturn, while 9% had increased their innovation budget.
In the absence of consolidation, countries will find it more difficult to deal with future age-related costs, have less scope to use counter-cyclical policies in any future downturn, put pressure on interest rates as government borrowing rises, and be less able to spend on growthenhancing programmes. However, countries’ problems with fiscal deficits and debt are not entirely due to the financial crisis and the subsequent downturn; they also reflect existing imbalances and unsustainable fiscal trajectories.
54% of GDP), Portugal (131%), Turkey (95%), Israel (55%) and Spain (54%). In interpreting and comparing these results, it must be remembered that the GERD-to-GDP ratio reflects changes in countries’ nominal spending on R&D as well in their economic growth. For example, of the 25 OECD countries with data available for both 2007 and 2008, R&D intensity decreased in eight, but this was related to a drop in R&D spending in only two. For the other six countries, nominal GDP grew faster than R&D spending.